Sunday, May 24, 2020

Embryonic Stem Cells Research Essays - 2785 Words

Embryonic stem cells research is a very conflicting subject in the United States. Some people think that it is morally and religiously incorrect as they are killing a human life at the first stage of life. While some think it is ok because the human life to them starts at the stage of the fetus. In this paper we are going to discuss the total aspect meaning: how the government takes playThe intention of this research paper is to inform about the benefits of animal testing for humankind through the development of medical treatments and the quality of life throughout history. Also try to persuade the society that is opposed to this practice about the many positive factors that has given us the animal experiments in the battle against†¦show more content†¦Based on this, the hypothesis is that animal testing is a gift of life and hope for everyone. The main purpose of animal testing is that it helps in the search for drugs and treatments to improve health and medicine. Keep in mind that many medical procedures have been made possible by animal experimentation, like HIV and cancer drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and many more. We can conclude that some experiments are considered essential for treatment of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s. Also the procedures to treat heart disease as is the case of open heart and lung surgery, coronary bypass improves blood flow to the heart, and the replacement of a defective heart valve. We should also mention the techniques and equipment for renal dialysis. Radiation therapy also was tested first in mice and rats. The cure for measles, smallpox, blood transfusions, and microsurgery to reattach severed limbs. In other promising research on lessons of the spinal cord and paralysis, so-called neurological, trying to find ways to repair nerve tissue and restore movement. These are some of the reasons why the scientific community and much of society support this practice. Which shows that without animal te sting, many humans, and also animals would not be alive today, would not have been possible to eradicate many pests that plague mankind.Show MoreRelatedEmbryonic Of Stem Cell Research Essay1576 Words   |  7 PagesEmbryonic Stem Cell Research Francois Rabelais, the famous Renaissance humanist, once said, â€Å"Science without conscience is the death of the soul† (Rabelais, Francois). Since the late 1960’s, this has been the stance for opponents of embryonic stem cell research. This is saying, if we are willing to take a fertilized embryo and kill it before it has even had time to develop, where is our conscience, our heart? We consider this form of stem cell research to be immoral and unethical. ScientistsRead MoreEmbryonic Of Stem Cell Research942 Words   |  4 PagesEmbryonic Stem Cell is when you have to destroy the egg inside, thus rendering that egg to become a human. The Stem Cell is put into a petri dish where it will be cultured and feed nutrients (Bethesda). The Stem Cell is almost like a blank code, It can replenish a part of the body that is hurt or has a disease (Bigloo). Stem cells can be programed any where in the body to fix the issue. When the stem cell divides it will keep pro ducing till the part of the body is back to normal (Bethesda). StemRead MoreThe Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research1292 Words   |  6 PagesEmbryonic stem cells research is the most debated type of stem cell research. The moral standings of embryonic stem cell research have been debated since the research started. The side against the research claims that it is wrong to value one’s life above another and that the elimination of the most basic form of life is murder. While the side supporting the research claims that the research could bring about the cure for many types of diseases and help save the lives of millions. Embryonic stemRead MoreThe Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research1460 Words   |  6 Pages I believe that embryonic stem cell research should be allowed in the United States. From previous encounters with the topic I have learned that the many benefits that can come from stem cell research are without a doubt astounding and unimaginable. There are simpl y endless possibilities that can arise if the research was allowed to be conducted. From giving back vision to rebuilding tissue, any advance in stem cell research would be beneficial to the medical world. With the help that the advancesRead MoreEmbryonic Stem Cell Research Essay710 Words   |  3 PagesResearch on stem embryonic stem cells We live in a world where genetic sciences have gone beyond laws, and past the imagination. We have come to a point where we don’t know anymore what is right, and what is wrong. We have to decide. In fact, studies are made on embryonic stem cells that for now have the purpose to better our overall health. These stem cells are extracted from extra IVF embryos; they are used and destroyed. While it’s true that this research could cure serious illnesses as Parkinson’sRead MoreThe Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research931 Words   |  4 Pages Embryonic stem cell research is the study of stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. For many years now, the ethics of embryonic stem cell research has been argued. A recent advance in this line of research is the ability to clone the embryonic stem cells, which allows for researchers to create a completely compatible embryonic stem cell to the individual’s tissue type. Though thi s new science may be very beneficial, not everyone can agree on the ethics ofRead MoreThe Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research1711 Words   |  7 PagesEmbryonic stem cell research is a hot topic of debate in our modern age, as scientific development continues to push the boundaries of ethics. The debates lies in whether or not it is helping or hindering society, as the procedure involves the manipulation of a human embryo. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from a week old human embryo (blastocyst), often developed from unused in vitro fertilised eggs. They are pluripotent, meaning they are capable of undergoing directed differentiation andRead MoreHuman Embryonic Stem Cell Research1625 Words   |  7 PagesProduction and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, the Pontifical Academy for Life presents the field of stem cell research with a statement regarding the official Roman Catholic position on the moral aspects of acquiring and using human embryonic stem cells.  They have declared that it is not morally legitimate to produce or use human embryos as a source of stem cells, nor is it acceptable to use stem cells from cell lines already established. Thus, bringing up the conflictingRead More Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay1451 Words   |  6 Pagestechnology has allowed for a new understanding of stem cells and further developments in research. The use of stem ce lls in regenerative medicine may hold significant benefits for those suffering from degenerative diseases. To avail such advancements in stem cell research could see the alleviation or complete cure of afflictions that take the lives of millions worldwide each year. (McLaren, 2001) A stem cell 1 is able differentiate into any somatic cell found in the human body, including those identicalRead MoreHuman Embryonic Stem Cell Research2490 Words   |  10 PagesFederal Government to fund stem cell research through the National Institute of Health. There are various types of stem cells, but the policy issue mainly covers human embryonic stem cells. This policy revokes President George W. Bush s executive order 13435 which put heavy limitations on federal funding for stem cell research. Although this policy has already taken effect, there are still bans and immense regulation on particular methods of human embryonic stem cell extraction that involve the

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Questions On Gross National Expenditure Essay - 986 Words

Economics Assignment 1 HALINA BINTI HUSSAIN 792153 Question 1 Gross National Expenditure (GNE) is defined as the aggregate national expenditure by all residents of a specific country on final goods and services, namely in the form of private consumption expenditure (C), investments (I) and government expenditure (G). The calculation of GNE does not take into account the origin of the goods and services. GNE and GDP(E) are different. GNE accounts for all final goods and services bought in a specific country including those bought from abroad also known as imports (M). For example, some households may spend on locally produced Peter’s ice cream while other residents may purchase Hà ¤agen-Dazs ice cream imported from USA. Despite their origin, both ice creams are accounted for in GNE. GDP(E) however, is only interested in measuring residents’ expenditure on domestically produced products as well as those goods and services produced domestically but sold in the foreign market known as exports (X). Hence, imports are deducted from the calculation of GNE whilst exports are added in order to arrive at GDP (E). In some circumstances, GDP(E) and GNE can be equal which is when no goods and services are imported nor exported. Another situation would be when total imports equals to total exports, hence trade balance would be zero. Question 2 In a closed economy, it is assumed that the total level of real production (Y) is dependent on the inputs of labour (L) and capitalShow MoreRelatedMacroeconomics641 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction to Economics EF 110 Take home exercise Due date: Wednesday 27th April 6pm 2011 This assignment must be submitted via moodle EF110 homepage. This assignment accounts for 10% of the final module grade Answer all questions. Marks awarded for each question can be clearly seen. This is an individual test and while it is expected that you may consult notes, etc, the final work shown should be your work alone. Your signature below will be taken as fulfilling the usual declaration thatRead MoreGross Domestic Product Is The Value Of Goods Produced And Services1236 Words   |  5 PagesGross Domestic Product, also known as GDP, is defined as the value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year. Gross Domestic Product is important in the culture of economics because in the United States, we use it to measure the well-being of the economy. Gross Domestic Product is measured in quarters, there are four quarters in one economic year. Say the Gross Domestic Product is down 10% in Quarter One and then in Quarter Two the Gross Domestic Product has gone up byRead MoreThe Study of Macroeconomics1507 Words   |  7 PagesMacroeconomic Questions †¢ Why do output and employment sometimes fall and how can unemployment be reduced? †¢ What are the sources of price inflation and how can it be kept under control? †¢ How can a nation increase its rate of economic growth? †¢ Objectives of Macroeconomics OUTPUT †¢ high level and rapid growth of output †¢ to provide goods and services that the population desires †¢ most comprehensive measure of total output in an economy is the gross domestic product / gross national product Read MoreDescription Of An Seasonally Adjusted Data1668 Words   |  7 PagesSubject Code: ECON10003 Subject Name: Introductory Macroeconomics Student ID Number: 762224 Student Name: Laura Walker Assignment Name or Number: 1 TUTOR: Saqib Manzoor TUTORIAL: Tuesday 8:00am – 9:00am QUESTION ONE a. Seasonally adjusted data March quarter 2014 - March quarter 2015 December quarter 2014 - March quarter 2015 Australia 2.3% 0.9% United States 2.9% 0.14966% (≈0.150%) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015) (Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of CommerceRead MoreEconomic Model Of Supply And Demand788 Words   |  4 Pagescapital Fiscal Deficit GDP Debt Net exports Consumer Price Index Producer Price Index Consumption spending Investment Inflation Production Possibility Curve II. ESSAY QUESTIONS. Answer any TWO questions. Answer all parts of each question that you choose. 1. a) What is Supply ? What is Demand ? b) Develop a model of a market, utilizing supply and demand. What are the dominant variables or parameters ? c) What is a shortageRead MoreDifference Between The And Australia1390 Words   |  6 PagesQUESTION ONE a. Seasonally adjusted data March quarter 2014 - March quarter 2015 December quarter 2014 - March quarter 2015 Australia 2.3% 0.9% United States 2.9% 0.14966% (≈0.150%) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2015) (Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2015) There is a slight difference in growth change over the past year for the US and Australia (by 0.6%). The difference between the respective levels of growth over the December quarter 2014 – March quarter 2015 is greaterRead MoreEcon984 Words   |  4 Pagesslot marked for your section in the white assignment collection box on the 2nd floor of Dunning Hall. Late assignments will not be accepted. †¢ Use the Cover Page when submitting assignments. Place diagrams for particular questions with your answers to those questions. †¢ Group Work: Maximum four per group, all students must be registered in the same section of the same course. Names must be in alphabetical order on the cover page. †¢ Graded work will be available for pick-up beginningRead MoreThe Value Of The National Debt906 Words   |  4 PagesThe Actual National Debt When the economists talk about the national debt, they talk about the ratio of the national debt to the Gross Domestic Product. Well, why do they compare those two concepts, instead of just giving us the sum of the national debt? In order to answer this question we will have to define what is the national debt, and what is the GDP. The National Debt The National Debt is the sum of all past federal deficits, minus any surpluses. (Rittenberg, L. and Tregarthen, T., 2012). ToRead MoreAssignment 2: What Is Gross Domestic Product?988 Words   |  4 PagesGo to the following website: Based on the information contained on the website above, answer the following questions: 1. What was Real GDP for 2009? The Real GDP for 2009 was 13,973.7 (NIPA Tables 1.1.5, 2012) a. What does GDP tell us? The GDP gives information regarding the country’s economy in regards to total money value on all final goods and services that are produced in the economy over any given time frame - annually or quarterly. Real GDP accounts for priceRead MoreGovernment Spending On Welfare And The Gross Domestic Product1673 Words   |  7 Pageswelfare is one of the biggest categories. Expenditure on welfare is directly extracted from government statistics[1]. There has been a great debate as to whether government spending on welfare has any relationship with the size of a country’s GDP[2]. As such, this research is meant to demystify the situation. The purpose of carrying out this research is to examine any underlying correlation between the government spending in welfare of the people and the gross domestic product. There are two hypotheses

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Four Contexts of Motivation Free Essays

Malcolm Knowles’ research in adult motivational learning produced four â€Å"distinct contexts†; Practical, Personal, Experiential, and Idealistic. The Practical context is motivated by a direct desired benefit result received from the learning such as a specific employment position, for financial wisdom and gain, or to apply the learning towards greater competency and confidence in making life decisions in situations anywhere from family to work, or even building that dream house that may have previously thought to be unattainable. The Personal context involves motivation directed by self fulfillment goals to overall better oneself and therein the quality of life. We will write a custom essay sample on The Four Contexts of Motivation or any similar topic only for you Order Now An adult student may for example want to learn in this context to increase self worth. Experiential learning differs from the other contexts in that one draws from real-life and past experiences motivated by a desire for renewal by consolidating with more current and forward ideas with the goal of improving and refreshing their experience. The final Idealistic context motivation attracts those who just desire to continuously learn for the sake of the ongoing discovery of knowledge and new ideas throughout their lifespan. Learning wine tasting may be a venture for this type of learner. My learning motivation is Experiential. Professionally I have experienced a long career in the Human Resources field and held BA degree positions despite the fact that I did not have one. I do have my PHR but have learned mostly in a hands-on context. I have experienced both successful and unsuccessful situations during my career. I started my college education years ago and have procrastinated about returning for many years. I finally came to the realization that I need that degree and everything it offers in order to become more competent and confident in my business decisions. The unsuccessful situations I have experienced were due to my lack of a solid educational background. When I lacked the educational background to perform some of the tasks I was assigned I became panicked, stressed and found it necessary to be reactive. My motto during those times became ‘‘fake it until you make it! †. That attitude eventually caught up with me and forced me to face what I was missing. It took my losing a couple of positions to overcome the denial I was in. I know that I need this degree to enhance my performance and definitely for organizational development. I am know on a serious mission to complete this goal and believe attending Ashford University will give me the competency, knowledge and confidence I need to be successful resulting in a much happier and less stressful lifestyle. How to cite The Four Contexts of Motivation, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Recognition in the Market for Qualityâ€Free Samples for Students

Question: Discuss About the Recognition in the Market for Quality? Answer: Introduction The company Cravings for Cakes Pty ltd. has recognition in the market for the quality manufacturing of cakes and pastries that delights the taste buds of the customers. Initially, which marks to be a period that is twenty years ago, the company just has the capability of offering only three ranges of the products which were pies, finger buns and lamingtons. Large volumes of these product lines were being produced with immense hard work. Twenty years ago, the company was not technological advanced and therefore, focused more on being labor intensive and adopted the usage of simple machineries that were not technologically advanced. However, talking about the current scenario, along with the production of the pies, finger buns and lamingtons, the company has excelled in the manufacturing of the food products such as Danish pastries, donuts and vanilla slices. Over the past twenty years, the company had undergone various changes in terms of accounting, management, production process and technology. There is an increased emphasis on the quality and delivery performance. This is the reason that the company now witnesses technological advancements in the term of installing of computer-controlled mixing machines and ovens that has shifted the focus of the company from being labor intensive to capital intensive. However, the company faces certain issues as the profits are being declining, over the years. There is a sudden need for the company to enhance the sales volume, in particular for those products that ensures high marginality Over the last twenty years, the company has witnessed changes in various aspects related to the cost structure, accounting, management, production processes and technology. The cost structure of the company has changed majorly as the company has shifted its focus from being labor intensive to capital intensive. The cost structure of a company refers to the part of fixed as well as variable costs that occurs during the operations of a business (University of California, 2016). It comprises of fixed cost as well as variable costs. Fixed cost refers to those cost that shall be generated irrespective of the sales volume and profit margins. On the other hand, the variable cost is the one that differs or varies on the basis of the level of the output produced. For the company Craving for Cakes Pty Ltd. the costing structure constitutes of fixed and variable costs. The fixed cost of the company constitutes of the rent as well as the salary of the employees on monthly basis. No matter what t he output level of the company is, the company has to incur these cost for the continuity of the business(Grayson, 2017). Talking about the variable cost, there are certain cost that constitutes to be the one which includes the cost for direct material, overheads, period cost, sunk cost, transaction cost and direct labor. The variable cost of the company Cravings for Cakes depends upon the level of output that is being produced. For the production purpose the variable cost is related to the ingredients (sugar, wheat, spices, wheat, eggs, flavors, salt), supplies and packaging materials which includes packing paper, ribbons, containers, tape etc., transaction cost that is incurred while procuring the raw materials and also when the final delivery has to be made to the customers (Keythman, 2017). The reasons for the change in the cost structure of the company Cravings for Cakes Pty ltd. were: Growing Automation: The growth of automation in the past few years have been a major reason in the change of the cost structure. This is so because the control systems for the sake of managing the machineries and production related equipments have been upgraded and have become advanced to such an extent that now the company has shifted its focus from labor intensive to become capital intensive(Autogrow, 2017). Earlier, the company was labor intensive and was not involved in heavy usage of the machineries. but, with the change in time, and growth in the automation, the company installed computer-controlled mixing machines as well as the ovens that replaced a lot of direct labor operations. With the installation of new and upgraded technological devices the company witnessed a change in the cost structure. Greater Product Diversity: With the increase in the product lines of a company, the cost structure of a company changes. Same is the case with the company Cravings for Cakes, as twenty years ago, the company was only involved in the production of three food products which were pies, finger buns and lamingtons. These products were being produced at large volumes. But gradually after years, the company has added more products in its range which are Danish cookies, donuts and vanilla slices. As the product line increases, the need for raw material such as ingredients, packing materials, electricity etc. also increases, which contributes in the change of the cost structure (Sschoute, 2011). Investment in Downstream Activities: downstream activities refers to the activities that the company is engaged in after the production of the final desired product. The aim is to assist the sales of the product produced. In order to stimulate and increase the sales volume, the Company Cravings for Cakes, invested in the downstream activities. For designing such activities, the sale steam was welcomed to give their viewpoints as they have an idea about the demand and preferences of the customers. The company is now focusing on enhancing its performance and quality and desires to offer value in return of the money of the customers. The company has engaged its resources in promotional activities in order to get an estimate that whether the customers are ready to pay higher prices for their products or not and about the taste and preference of the customers that shall result in increased sales in the future. hence, the cost incurred for promotional and downstream activities has changed the cost structure (Thompson, 2017). The Company Cravings for Cakes produces a large volume of Lamington and Danish pastries. Whether the current costing system understates or overstates the cost of Lamington and Danish pastries can be ascertained through the following factors: Cost Assignment: The cost is being assigned to each product through the way of direct and indirect cost. These direct and indirect cost includes various other costs such as cost of ingredients, depreciation or repairing of the equipment used for production, electricity, and direct labor cost. The cost per unit of each of the food product can be calculated by adding the material used, the direct cost of labor and the overhead expenses. Overhead expenses are not direct expenses but are incurred in the process of carrying out the production. It depends on the demand of the particular product (BusinessDictionary, 2017). Comparison of Overheads: Overhead expenses includes the cost that is incurred while doing the business. It refers to the expenses that are categorized as non-labor expenses (Amelia, 2015). In comparison to the Danish pastries, the overhead expenses of the food product Lamington are higher under present costing system. Distribution of Overhead: The overhead rate consists of two types which are plant wide overhead rate and departmental overhead rate. The plant wide overhead rates are preferred mostly by the small sized organizations as it enables the company to apportion the overhead product cost for manufacturing. It is calculated by dividing the manufacturing overhead expenses with the cost driver level (Averkamp, 2017). On the other hand, departmental overhead rate is preferred when the company is engaged in the various product lines, as it is depended on the direct as well the indirect overhead costs of the department. It is calculated by dividing the departmental manufacturing overhead with the departmental cost of driver (AccountingTools, 2017). The company is using traditional costing system. In this costing system, total cost of production is calculated based on the volume of production of different products. This system does not consider the actual amount of resources that are being used for manufacturing any product. The system allocates resources equally to all types of products irrespective of difference in manufacturing process. Lamington: Based on current costing system used by company, overhead cost of Lamington is greater as it is produced in large quantities. It can be said that company is overstating cost of Lamington. This is because current costing system fails to consider saving in machine setup and material handling cost owing to large volume. Danish Pastry: The company is understating the cost of Danish Pastry. This is because traditional costing system used by company does not take into consideration cost incurred due to complex procedure and large machineries setup cost needed for production of Danish Pastry. Activity based accounting refers to a framework that enables the organization to allocate the different activities as well as assign the production cost that is related with the activities. This type of accounting also enables to allocate the resources which are required for the production of the products and services depending up on the definite utilization (Investopedia, 2017). There are certain ways through which the activity based accounting is able to overcome the deficiencies of the existing costing systems, which are as follows: Accurate Product Cost: the activity based costing emphasizes on the cause and effect relationship and hence, enables the organization to have an accurate and reliable result regarding the cost of its product. When compared with the existing costing systems, the ABC system ensures the organization that the increased number of activities, increases the cost. In the case of the company Cravings for Cakes, the existing accounting system is overstating the product Lamington and is understating Danish pastries. In such case, the adoption of the ABC system shall help in knowing the accurate cost for each product. Information About Cost Behavior: the ABC system helps in identifying the area of increasing costs and helps in reduction of the costs which results in no product value addition. The managers involved in the ABC system has the skills and authority to manage the overhead cost by limiting the fixed overhead costs. For the company, the ABC system will help in creating a balance with the overhead costs of the products being produced, especially the Lamington and Danish pastries of which the overhead cost of is overstating and understating. Optimum Utilization: the ABC system ensures the optimum utilization of resources. For the company, the ABC system is beneficial as it will ensure maximum output with the use of minimum output and that too with a decreased cost. The system allocated the required resources and identifies the action plan activities that reduces ambiguity and ensures a reduction in prices as well (Agarwal, 2017). The factors influencing the choice of Activity Based Costing are (Maelah Ibrahim, 2007): Overheads: overheads refer to the indirect expenses incurred while doing the business. The ABC system must be adopted when the overheads are higher as well as the company or organization is involved in offering various product lines. Business Type: If the company is involved in the business of making customized products for the customers, then the ABC system shall not be effective as the business process is simple and the simple job costing can be used. Cost Drivers: Cost Drivers refers to the factors that drives the fixed and variable costs for a production process. These cost drivers increase with the increase in the number of activities involved in the production process. If the number of production activities is low, then ABC system is not favorable, as simple accounting methods shall serve the purpose (Nelson, 2017). References AccountingTools. (2017). Departmental Overhead Rate . Retrieved from Agarwal, R. (2017). Advantages and Demerits of Activity Based Costing (ABC). Retrieved from Amelia, S. (2015, February 6). 6 Easy Steps to Determine Your Baking Overhead Costs. Retrieved from Autogrow. (2017). Intelligent Automation . Retrieved from Averkamp, H. (2017). AC. Retrieved from BusinessDictionary. (2017). Cost assignment . Retrieved from Grayson, L. (2017). What Impact Does a Fixed Cost Have on a Company's Operating Leverage? Retrieved from Investopedia. (2017). Activity-Based Costing - ABC . Retrieved from Keythman, B. (2017). List of Variable Costs for a Bakery. Retrieved from Maelah, R., Ibrahim, D. N. (2007). Factors Influencing The Activity Based Costing (ABC) Adoption In Manufacturing Industry. Investment Management and Financial Innovations. Nelson, S. L. (2017). Should You Use Activity-Based Costing In A Small Business? Retrieved from Sschoute, M. (2011). The relationship between product diversity, usage of advanced manufacturing technologies and activity-based costing adoption. The British Accounting Review, 120-134. Thompson, S. (2017). Upstream and Downstream Activities for a Marketing Director. Retrieved from Chron: University of California. (2016). Cost Structure. Retrieved from

Friday, March 27, 2020

4 Important Qualities of Women Leaders

4 Important Qualities of Women Leaders When it comes to leadership, does gender matter? Is there a difference between women leaders and men who lead? If so, what are the unique qualities of female leadership that the most effective women leaders possess, and are they unique to women? Caliper Study In 2005, a year-long study conducted by Caliper, a Princeton, New Jersey-based management consulting firm, and Aurora, a London-based organization that advances women, identified a number of characteristics that distinguish women leaders from men when it comes to qualities of leadership: Women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders... Women leaders were also found to be more empathetic and flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts... enabl[ing] them to read situations accurately and take information in from all sides... These women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view... because they genuinely understand and care about where others are coming from... so that the people they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued. Four Qualities of Women Leaders The Caliper study findings are summarized into four specific statements about womens leadership qualities: Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts.When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an Ill show you attitude.Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem-solving and decision making.Women leaders are more likely to ignore rules and take risks. In her book Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The Unique Female Qualities of Leadership, author Esther Wachs Book examined the careers of fourteen top female executives- among them Meg Whitman, President, and CEO of eBay- to learn what makes them so successful. What she discovered echoes the Caliper study, including a willingness to reinvent the rules; an ability to sell their visions; the determination to turn challenges into opportunities; and a focus on high touch in a high-tech business world. Conclusions This evidence that the leadership style of women in power is not simply unique, but possibly at odds with what men practice, begs the question: Do these qualities have value in the marketplace? Is this type of leadership welcomed by society and by the public and private sector? Dr. Musimbi Kanyoro, the World YWCA Secretary-General, says attitudes toward leadership are changing, and what women offer is essential: Domination as a leadership style is becoming less and less popular. There is a new growing appreciation of...those traits that women use to keep families together and to organize volunteers to unite and make change in the shared life of communities. These newly admired leadership qualities of shared leadership; nurturance and doing good for others are today not only sought after but also indeed needed to make a difference in the world....A feminine way of leading includes helping the world to understand and be principled about values that really matter. Sources:   Women Leaders Study: The Qualities That Distinguish Women Leaders., Musimbi. Challenges to Womens Leadership. Speech in honor of YWCA of Salt Lake centennial celebration. 13 July 2006.Are Women Natural Leaders, and Men†¦the Opposite? KnowledgeWharton, University of Pennsylvania 8 November 2000.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Satire and Comedy Essays

Satire and Comedy Essays Satire and Comedy Paper Satire and Comedy Paper Satire Satire is a term applied to any work of literature or art whose objective is ridicule. It has significant functions in social and political criticism. Satirical literature exposes foolishness in all its forms, such as vanity, hypocrisy, sentimentality etc. It also attempts to effect reform through such exposure. Satirists, therefore, design a work of literature focusing on human or individual vices, follies, abuses, or shortcomings. They use satire as a literary technique to combat these vices and shortcomings, and to censure by means of ridicule, derision, burlesque, irony or other methods (New Encyclopedia Britannica, 1993, 10, 467). Satirical works are commonly critical. Hawthorn (2005:197) states, Satire attacks alleged vices and stupidities either of individuals or of whole communities or groups and its tools are ridicule, exaggeration and contempt. However, Sutherland (1958:2) points out that not all satirical works are equally critical. He argues that: 2 Some works are satirical throughout; in others the satire is only intermittent, one element in a more complex effect. The lines that separate the satirical from the unsatirical are often hard to define, either because the writer shifts easily and rapidly from one mood to another, or because the satirical tone is so rarefied as to be almost imperceptible. In addition to being critical, many satirical texts are humorous. To put it in Feinbergs words, crit icism and humor have to be present in a literary work to be called satiric (1967:60). Thus, it is the nature of satire to be humorous and critical in order to expose follies and vices of individuals and society, and if possible, to do justice to such erroneous practices. Several literary critics state that satire is a protean term that makes it difficult to come up with a fixed definition. In line with this, The New Encyclopedia Britannica, 2005, 23,173 states, together with its derivatives, it is one of the most heavily worked literary designations and one of the most imprecise. This book even goes to the extent of saying: No strict definition can encompass the complexity of a word that signifies, on one hand, a kind of literature as when one speaks of the satires of the Roman poet Horace or calls the American novelist Nathanael Wests A Cool Million a satire and, on the other hand, a mocking spirit or tone that manifests itself in many literary genres but can also enter into almos t any kind of human communication. Similarly, Feinberg (1967:18) points out that satire is such an amorphous genre that no two scholars define it in the same words. However, many literary scholars have attempted to give suitable working definitions based on their own perspectives. This does not exclude the definition stated in the 13 above source that states, Wherever wit is employed to expose something foolish or vicious, to criticism, there satire exists, whether it is in song or sermon, in painting or political debate, on television or in the movies. Nor does it disregard what Feinberg says in defining satire as: a playfully critical distortion of the familiar (1967:19). It is, therefore, important to mention the varying definitions of satire given by different writers at this point. One of the most widely accepted definitions of satire is the one that is given in A Glossary of Literary Terms by Abrams (1981:167). Abrams defines satire as: The literary art of diminishing a subject by making it ridiculous nd evoki ng toward it attitudes of amusement, contempt, indignation or scorn. It differs from the comic in that comedy evokes laughter mainly as an end in itself, while satire derides; that it uses laughter as a weapon and against a butt existing outside the work itself. That butt may be an individual (in personal satire), or a type of person, a class, an institution, a nation or even (as in Rochesters A Satyr against Mankind and much of Swifts Gullivers Travels, especially Book IV) the whole race of man. The above definition emphasizes the principal notion of satire as a literary work in which human vice or folly are attacked through such techniques as irony, derision, or wit. Accordingly, it is the nature of satire to ridicule mans naive acceptance of individuals and institutions at face value (Feinberg, 1963:19). It is also acknowledged that satire gives us pleasure, for it presents the subject matter to scrutiny through humorous ways. 14 Robert Harris (2004), points out that the best definitions of satire should be formulated from a combination of its corrective intent and its literary method of execution. He quotes Thralls definition as an acceptable definition of satire as follows: A literary manner that blends a critical attitude with humor and wit to the end that human institutions or humanity may be improved. The true satirist is conscious of the frailty of institutions of mans devising and attempts through laughter not so much to tear them down as to inspire a remodeling. It is important to note in the above definition that satire involves the fusion of laughter and contempt. Inseparable from any definition of satire is its corrective purpose. Ian Gordon (2002) points out the corrective purpose of the satirist saying that the satirist stands in opposition to the current state of affairs, endeavoring to change things either to what they were in a recalled and often mythologized, past, or to what they might be in a preferred, and frequently Utopian, future. It may follow from the above definitions that the corrective purpose of satire is expressed through a critical mode that includes laughter and contempt. Scholes and Sullivan (1986:8) define satire based on the view of the world presented in a literary text. They argue, A work that presents a fictional world worse than the real world is in th e mode of anti-romance, or satire. They also suggest, The world of satire emphasizes ugliness and disorder. These authors claim remind us that the theme of sati re can be presented through different techniques in order to maintain standards, reaffirm values, and to come up with reforms in the society. 15 To put it briefly, satire is concerned with the nature of reality. It exaggerates or understates to criticize human follies and vices for it has a corrective purpose. It reveals the contrast between reality and pretense; yet again, it uses comic devices in order to criticize and give us pleasure. As Feinberg (1967) puts it, the sphere of satire is criticism of man and society, a criticism made entertaining by humor and moving by irony and invective. For many literary scholars, efforts at defining satire may vary. However, the definitions such as those described above commonly share the view that satire is concerned with the criticism of individual and social evils. Moreover, at the heart of every satire, there exists a corrective purpose that is expressed through critical humor. 2. 2 Characteristics of Satire Satire, in prose or verse, employs critical humor to expose human wickedness and folly. In reflecting the salient characteristics of satire, Mitchell (2003) argues that satire attacks those institutions or individuals the satirist deems corrupt. In other words, one characteristic feature of satire is that it is concerned with ethical reform. The other characteristics of satire according to Mitchell are: It works to make vice laughable and/or reprehensible and thus bring social pressure on those who still engage in wrongdoing. It seeks a reform in public behavior, a shoring up of its audiences standards or at the very least a wake- up call in an otherwise corrupt culture. Satire is often implicit and assumes readers who can pick up on its moral clues. It is not a sermon. Satire in general attacks types the fool, the boor, the adulterer, the proud rather than specific persons. If it does attack some by name, rather than hoping to reform these persons, it seeks to warn the 16 public against approving of them. Satire is witty, ironic, and often exaggerated. It uses extremes to bring its audience to a renewed awareness of its ethical and spiritual danger. According to Ian Johnston (1998), one characteristic feature of satire is the desire to use precisely clear language to induce an audience to protest. As a result, the language of the satirist is full of irony, paradox, antithesis, colloquialism, anticlimax, obscenity, violence, vividness, and exaggeration. The satirist uses these techniques to describe painful or absurd situations or foolish or wicked persons or groups as vividly as possible. Johnston argues, The satirist believes that most people are blind, insensitive, and perhaps anesthetized by custom and resignation and dullness. The satirist wishes to make them see the truth at least that part of the truth which they habitually ignore. Moreover, Johnston considers morality as an important characteristic of satire. To put it in his words: At the basis of every good traditional satire is a sense of moral outrage or indignation. This conduct is wrong and needs to be exposed. Hence, to adopt a satiric stance requires a sense of what is right, since the target of the satire can only be measured as deficient if one has a sense of what is necessary for a person to be truly moral. Satire attacks socially objectionable behavior through humorous ways. It aims at amendment of vices by correction. As Feinberg (1967) writes on the characteristics of satire, its essential qualities are entertainment and its freshness. That is, the appeal of satire lies in its literary merit, brilliance, wit, humor, and freshness (7). Satire, therefore, shows old things in a new 17 way to reveal the contrast between reality and pretense through skillful manipulation of language. To put it in Feinbergs (1967:16) words: Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying as works of art, not because they are (as they may be) morally wholesome or ethically instructive. They are stimulating and refreshing because with commonsense briskness they brush away illusions and second han d opinions. With spontaneous irreverence, satire rearranges perspectives, scrambles familiar objects into incongruous juxtaposition, and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstract platitude. It is important to note in the above quotation that satire entertains through humor, irony and invective. Russell and Brown (1967:xviii) also argue that where attack is absent or where it tends to turn almost wholly on extreme distortion, what may pass as satire becomes ineffective and does not deserve the name. 2. 3 The Purpose of Satire Harris (2004), highlights that the satirists goal is to expose vice and hypocrisy in order to effect reformation. The best satire, according to Harris, does not seek to do harm or damage by its ridicule, but rather it seeks to create a shock of recognition and to make vice impulsive so that the vice will be expunged from the person or society under attack or from the person a society intended to benefit by the attack. Thus, satire attempts to effect some changes in the behavior of the target as well as to encourage others not to behave in such a manner. Satire is concerned with justice, morality, and virtue. Maynard Mack (quoted by Harris) states that satire asserts the validity and necessity of norms 18 systematic, values, and meanings that are contained by recognizable codes. Accordingly, Harris notes that satire has moral and didactic purpose. He writes: Satire is inescapably moral and didactic (in the best sense of that unfortunately slandered word) even when no efinite, positive values are stated in the work as alternatives to the gross corruptions depictions by the attack. The satirist does not need to state specific moral alternatives to replace the villainy he attacks because the morality is either already present in the lip service his target pays to virtue, or it is apparent by implication. Likewise, Feinberg (1963:20) argues that the primary purpose of the satirist is to moralize. Humbert Wolfe (cited by Feinberg) strengthens this idea considering the satirists work as half-way etween a preacher and a wit; he has the purpose of the former, uses the weapon of the latter. In other words, what motivates the satirist is the hatred he has for the wrong and injustice as much as his love of the right and the just. Moreover, the satirist holds up human and individual wrong doings to censure in order to make us better. The art of satire is, therefore, the delivering of moral judgment and its objective is not to degrade man but to show him how he has degraded himself (Feinberg, 1968:23). The purpose of the satire, according to Sutherland (1958:11) is to compel man to what they have tried to ignore, and to destroy their illusions or pretenses. As a social critic, the satirist, therefore, makes us see familiar things in a new way compelling us to what we have ignored. Accordingly, any kind of satirical comment may magnify, diminish or distort to tear off the guise and expose the naked truth, or to bring someone to his sense s. 19 Abrams (1981:67) agrees on the corrective purpose of satire. He says, Satire has usually been justified by those who practice it as a corrective of human vices and folly. Similarly, Harris (2002) argues that the corrective purpose of satire in exposing individual and human vice and hypocrisy succeeds only to the extent that the audience responds to the attack. Hence, as Sutherland (1958:20) puts it: Satire is not for the literal-minded. It exists on at least two levels, the overt and the implied; and it can only function properly when the tact, the intelligence, and the magination of the satirist are met by a corresponding response in the reader. In short, satire attacks erroneous practices of individuals in particular and human beings at large with intent to bring about changes. These changes may have corrective or moralizing purpose. That is, at the heart of every satire there is criticism that is geared towards exposing hypocrisy, pretense, corruptions, and other shortcoming of human beings. Therefore, satire aims at displaying the critical attitude of the satirist in order to reaffirm values, maintain standards and rectify the follies and vices of the society. 2. 4 Techniques of Satire It has been pointed out earlier that the essence of satire is giving pleasure of criticism by combining or contrasting ideas. Accordingly, satirists use different techniques to convey their messages. Certain specific literary techniques lend themselves to satire because they can contain a measure both of wit and of humor. Among them are exaggeration, distortion, understatement, innuendo, simile, irony, metaphor, oxymoron, parable, and allegory (Harris, 2002). On the other hand, Feinberg (1967) lists distortion, indirection, externality, brevity, and variety as major techniques of satire. Other scholars, such as Matthew Hogart, Gilbert Highet and Northrop Frye, 20 add reduction, invective, caricature, burlesque, and reduction ad absurdum to the list. A brief discussion of the prominent techniques has been presented as follows. 2. 4. 1 Exaggeration Exaggeration is one of the most commonly used techniques in satire. Harris (2002), notes that exaggeration is one of the best ways to get the target to recognize or admit that a vice exists. The satirist exaggerates in order to make the unseeing see, and the seeing-but-complacent oppose and expunge corruption. Hence, exaggeration as a satirical technique plays an important role. To use Feinbergs (1967:108) words: The exaggeration of satirists is not as purposeless as it tries to appear. What the satirist exaggerates is the bad, the foolish, the hypocritical; what he minimizes or omits is the good, the sensible, and the honest. The resulting scene is not only exaggerated but heavily biased-against the victims of the satirists attack. In other words, the satirist uses exaggeration to describe painful or absurd situations or foolish or wicked persons as vividly as possible. On top of that, as a dispassionate observer of humanity and the irate attacker of particular individuals (Knight, 2005), the satirist employs exaggeration to make his observation and attack effective. 2. 4. 2 Distortion The technique of the satirist, as indicated earlier, consists of a playfully critical distortion of the familiar. Distortion refers to changing the perspective of a condition or event by isolation (separation from its ordinary surroundings) or by stressing some aspects and deemphasizing others (Harris, 2002). Hence, the satirist distorts in many ways. For instance, he 21 may minimize the good qualities of the person or institution that he is attacking. For example, in Gulliver’s Travels (1726), Swift exposes humanity in all its baseness and cruelty using this technique. Sa tirists may also magnify the bad ones making isolated instances seem typical. 2. 4. 3 Indirection and Invective One often-used satiric technique is indirection. Many literary critics agree th at the quality of satiric representation is effective when the attack is indirect. David Worcester (cited by Feinberg, 1967:93) remarks that satire is the engine of anger rather than the direct expression of anger. Similarly, Sutherland (1958:20) points out that twentieth century satire relies more and more on the indirectness of irony, innuendo and fantasy. Accordingly, the indirectness of satire helps the satirist to make his or her attack tolerable by making it entertaining. As Johnston (1998) suggests satires that are very direct are boring and ineffectual. Unlike indirection, invective is very abusive. It is an open insult used occasionally for shock effect. It usually lacks irony in order to attack a particular target. According to Johnston, it is the least inventive of the satirists tools. Besides, the danger of pure invective is that one can quickly get tired of it, since it offers limited opportunity for inventive wit. 2. 4. 4 Burlesque Burlesque refers to ridiculous exaggeration in language, usually one that makes the discrepancy between the words and the situation or the character silly. To use Johnstons example, to have a king speak like an idiot or an ordinary worker speak as a king is burlesque. Similarly, a very serious situation can be burlesqued by having the characters in a literary text speak or behave in ridiculously inappropriate ways. In other words, burlesque creates a large gap between the situation or the characters and the style with which they speak or act out the event. 22 2. 4. 5 Irony Irony is a systematic use of double meaning where meaning of words is opposite of the literal or expected meaning. It is a stylistic device or figure of speech in which the real meaning of the words is different from the literal meaning. As Muecke (1969:3) puts it, irony may be a weapon in satirical attack. Likewise, Johnston (1998) notes that irony brings two contrasting meanings into play. Consequently, it becomes satiric when the real meaning appears to contradict the surface meaning. It should, however, be noted that irony is not confined to satire. To put it briefly, satirists use a variety of literary devices. They may use various techniques, such as those described above, in order to say two or more things at one time, and to compare, equate, or contrast for satirical purposes. Moreover, these techniques provide variety, conciseness, and opportunity for employing wit and humor. In explaining the use of satirical techniques, Harris (2004) writes the following about satirical techniques: The satire must be presented in a manner that will bring action, and in a world of complacent hypocrites, irony, with its various means of presentation, is essential; the message cannot be derived without it, if the message is to have any tangible effect. In a two-word abstract, the purpose of satire is the correction or deterrence of vice, and its method is to attack hypocrisy through the ironic contrast between values and actions. The aforementioned quotation highlights that the techniques the satirist uses have to serve the purpose the satirist has in mind. It is an indispensable 23 quality of satire to employ appropriate techniques. Furthermore, Hawthorn (2005:197) remarks that the satirist is concerned with drawing our attention to what he or she is attacking rather than to create characters, situations and events that are believable in and for themselves. That is, a novelist may include satirical elements in works that do not, overall, merit the term satirical novel (and indeed most novelists do). Therefore, literary works that are not usually categorized as satirical (novel or short story) may use the major weapons of satire in order to diminish a set of beliefs by making it appear ridiculous. Finally, based on the techniques the satirist employs satire can be divided into formal or direct and informal or indirect (Abrams, 1981:168). Abrams also distinguishes two types of formal satire, namely Horatian satire and Juvenalian satire, whereas the Menippean satire is indirect. On the other hand, Juvenalian satire is harsher; more pointed, and often attacks particular people with an invective attack. Horatian satire is mild and gentler. To put it in the words of Abrams (1981:169): In Horatian satire the character of the speaker is that of an urbane, witty, and tolerant man of the world, who is moved more often to wry amusement than to indignation at the spectacle of human folly, pretentiousness, and hypocrisy, and who uses a relaxed and informal language to evoke a smile at human follies and absurdities ometimes including his own. In Juvenalian satire the character of the speaker is that of a serious moralist who uses a dignified and public style of utterance to decry modes of vice and error which are no less dangerous because they are ridiculous, and who undertakes to evoke contempt, moral indignation, or an unillusioned sadness at the aberrations of men. 24 2. 5 The Nature of Comedy Comedy, according to Abrams (1971:26), is a form of literature that is de signed to amuse by use of wit, humor, criticism or ridicule. He defines it as: a work in which the materials are selected and managed primarily in order to interest and amuse us: the characters and their discomfitures engage our delighted attention rather than our profound concern, we feel confident that no great disaster will occur, and usually the action turns out happily for the chief characters. Abrams also notes that even though comedy is commonly applied to dramas, the comic form also occurs in prose fiction and narrative poetry. In whichever form it appears comedy attempts to arouse and satisfy human instinct for mischief. In line with this, Fowler (1973:31) has the following to say about the materials of comedy: Comedy in itself is neither morally useful nor immoral: it can perpetuate and extend misconceptions as well as ridicule them. Sometimes, however, dramatists use the irresponsible instinctual speed of comedy to lead the audience to a more complex intellectual awareness. According to John Morreall (http: //www. dbu. du/ mitchell/comedytr. htm) there are many characteristics that make up a comedy. One among them is the fact that comedy is more imaginative, stressing playfulness. For this reason, comedy tends to look for a variety of answers and does not need to solve everything. Secondly, comedy tends to call attention to the incongruities in the order of things, be it political, social, or religious. Thirdly, comic characters are often ironic and disengaged from the situation; they tend to respond wi th wit, imagination, or cynicism. 25 The other characteristic feature of comedy is that its language is fluent and articulate. To put it in Fowlers words: Characters do not feel a need to develop exploratory, stretching uses of language to account for themselves and the world around them, but are satisfied that the relationships between them and the world are simple and comprehensible (1973:32). It is also the nature of comedy to reveal playfulness. Even if it has its serious side, the comic vision tends to treat large portions of ife as not quite so serious. However, satiric comedy, according to Abrams (1971:27) attacks the disorders of society by making ridiculous the violators of its standards of morals or manners. In addition to this, comedy involves exaggeration, incongruity, and contradictions as techniques. It also uses contrast between social order and individual, suspension of natural laws, and comic premise to provide structural and thematic unity for comic dialogue. Ma ny argue that producing pleasure through laughter is the primary nature of comedy. On the other hand, Sypher (1991:148) states that the pleasure caused by the laughter of comedy is not a pure enjoyment. He further notes that it is not a pleasure that is exclusionary esthetic or altogether disintegrated. It always implies a secret or unconscious intent, if not of each one of us, at all events of society as a whole. Therefore, comedy may have a critical intent. Hence, comedy is not always a naive joke; nor is it always seriously stuffed with didactic moral issues. It expresses the characteristics of men in the ordinary circumstances of everyday life. As Sypher (1991:149) puts it: the comic is not always an indication of a fault, in the moral meaning of the word, and if critics insist on seeing a fault, even though a trifling one, in the ludicrous, they must point out what it is here that exactly distinguishes the trifling from the serious. 26 2. 6 The purpose of Comedy Comedies usually tend to focus on the larger community and spend more time paying attention to the interaction between groups. As a result, they often question tradition and those in authority. Comedy, according to Eric Trumbull, serves the purpose of looking at the world in which basic values are asserted but natural laws suspended in order to underscore human follies and foolishness. That is, in comedy we are usually being asked to laugh at our common human foibles and ourselves. Besides, comedy reminds us our inescapable human limitations. Sypher (1991:241-2) discusses several social meanings of comedy. He points out that in its earliest days comedy is an essential pleasure mechanism valuable to the society. To put it in his words: Comedy is a momentary and publicly useful resistance to authority and an escape from its pressures, and its mechanism is a free discharge of repressed psychic energy or resentment through laughter . . . The ambivalence of comedy reappears in its social meanings, for comedy is both hatred and revel, rebellion and defense, attack and escape. It is revolutionary and conservative. Socially, it is both sympathy and persecution. Comedy also serves the social purpose of affirming the security of any group already unsure of itself. With this regard, Sypher says, the comedian banishes doubt by ridicules and is the diplomatic artist (244). He further notes that comedy can relieve the stress between compelling ideals by laughter. In other words, comedy may enable us to adjust incompatible standards without resolving the clash between them. Finally, here is how Sypher (1991:245) describes the use of comedy in helping us with our disillusions: 7 Comedy can be a means of mastering our disillusions when we are caught in a dishonest or stupid society. After we recognize the misdoings, the blunders, we can liberate ourselves by a confident, wise laughter that brings a catharsis of our discontent. We see the flaws in things, but we do not always need to concede the victory, even if we live in a human world. If we can laugh wisely enough at ourselves and others, the sense of guilt, dismay, anxiety, or fear can be lifted . Unflinching and undaunted we see where we are. This strengthens us as well as society. To put it briefly, apart from the pleasure that we get from it, comedy enables us to laugh at evils and errors of human beings. Consequently, it serves the purpose of psychological compensation. In other words, comedy helps us escape from the vices and follies of individuals and societies making us laugh at the imperfections of the world around us. Not only that, but comedy can also be quite in accord with stern morality. It should, however, be noted here that what distinguishes satire from comedy, as Fowler (1973:167) put it, is its lack of tolerance for folly or human imperfection. 2. 7 Satire and Comedy Satire and comedy often shade into each other in ways tha t make an exact borderline difficult to draw. Like satire, comedy has a corrective purpose. The New Encyclopedia Britannica (2005,23,151) highlights that the comic artists purpose is to hold a mirror up to society to reflect its follies and vices, in the hope that they will, as a result be mended. Correspondingly, Johnston shares this view of the corrective purpose of comedy. He argues that satire is a particular use of humor for overtly moral purposes. According to him, satire seeks to use laughter not just to remind us of our common often ridiculous humanity, but rather to expose those moral excesses, those 28 corrigible sorts of behavior which transgress what the writer sees as the limits of acceptable moral behavior. One characteristic feature of satire, as indicated earlier, is criticism and humor. That is, the technique of the satirist consists of a playful critical distortion (Feinberg, 1967:19). Although not everything humorous may be satirical, Harris (2004) states that satire uses humor to make the attack funny. To put it in h is words: Satire, like all literature and poetry, must be intellectually rewarding, be reasonably well written, and especially must entertain in order to survive- and in the particular case of satire, in order to be received at all. The basic mood of attack and the disapproval needs to be softened to some xtent and made more palatable; wit and humor serve this end by making the criticism entertaining, and even attractive. The satirists major objective is unmasking or exposing human follies, vices and shortcomings. As Sypher (1991:242) put it, certainly the laugh of the satirist is often a sneer; and there is an undercurrent of satire in most comedy. As a result, when the satirist uses comic elements, it will only be for the purpose of criticism. In other words, wherever wit is employed to expose something foolish or vicious to criticism, there satire exists. Sutherland (1958:7) strongly argues that comedy, like satire deals with the common errors of our life. He says, If we can agree that it is the satirists intention to expose, or deride, or condemn that distinguishes him from the writer of comedy, then we shall probably find that much of what has conventionally been referred to as comedy should more probably be called satire. On the other hand, the tone of satire may vary in different works 29 eventhough the elements of attack and humor is associated with the efinition of satire. In line with this, Russell and Brown (1967:xviii) argue many satirical works are so playful or whimsical as to preclude the idea of attack, and many other satires, even some acknowledged to be great, lack humor and tend to become ponderous. However, satire and comedy are not exactly the same. Abrams (1981:167) argues that satire differs from the comic in that comedy evokes laughter mainly as an end, while satire derides; that is it uses laughter as a weapo n, and against a butt existing outside the work itself. What sets satire apart from comedy, according to Ian Johnston, is that in satire there is a clear and overt didactic intention. On the other hand, normal comedy aims at producing laughter at our common follies and ourselves. In line with this, Feinberg (1967:101) has the following to say: Uncritical humor is not satire, nor is all satire humorous. But since satirists use all the comic devices for the purpose of criticism, to see how satire works it is necessary to examine four basic techniques of humor: incongruity, urprise, pretense, and catering to the superiority of the audience. In general, there is a common agreement among literary critics that satire uses comedy for the effect of criticism. Besides, as Sutherland (1958:10) puts it, we must be prepared to find the writer of a comedy losing his moral neutrality and slipping into satire, and the satirist occasionally loosening his control over the reader and relaxing into co medy.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Strategic Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Strategic Management - Essay Example The key which we can derive from this description is that strategy is of foreseeing and planning for the future in order to optimize the performance of a certain group or entity in order to achieve a long term goal. It is the positioning of that certain entity which will transcend into an immediate outcome into a wider and greater scheme of things and objectives. As many a definition people view what ‘strategy’ is, they do not entirely deviate from the real essence of the word. When we translate ‘strategy’ in the matters of business, it is best defined as a specific way a firm competes in the industry, as said by Collis & Rukstad. There is no such thing as general template when it comes to strategic management. There are no pre-defined methods and ways. Every scenario differs from another and each requires a different strategy in order to navigate the complexities and the many variables of the world of business. In order achieve a good strategy, the crucial component is the management. By assessing what components are involved in the formulation of a strategy and discerning how each are related and how one and each of them fit in the larger picture requires an adept management team and skill. Herein comes then the concept of strategic management. This is a field which concerns itself with the course of action that the management section of the company acts on behalf of its owners in order to better utilize its resources so as to enhance the performance of the company when it is pitted in the external environment. It involves itself on the very primal building blocks of the company, which are defining the scope of its objectives and missions and visions (Nag et al., 2007, p. 935). The management should also have a sound and workable policies and plans that are also capable of being flexible in order to cope up with the ever changing and volatile times of the business battlefield. It also oversees how the company equips and gears itself in order to grasp the fruition of its objectives and long term goals. In a more simple definition, strategic management provides the overall direction in reference with and in limitation of what the company has and will have, its liabilities, and its faults, and potential failure points. By creating harmony and orchestrating the performance of the whole company, it shall then function as an efficient organism, capable of covering up its weaknesses with adjustments that will then be played by the strengths and advantages of the company. As many would put it, â€Å"strategic management is an on-going process that evaluates and controls the business and the industries in which the company is involved; assesses its competitors and sets the goals and strategies to meet all existing and potential competitors; and then reassess each strategy annually or quarterly to determine its effectiveness’ (Lamb, 1984, ix) One very popular and popular tool in order to come up with a good strat egy for the management is the SWOT analysis (Chapman, 2007). This is a very helpful framework for identifying the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (which is also the standing meaning of the acronym). For this paper, the author will evaluate the SWOT of the Starbucks